World Mosquito Day: Unfold & Info About Malaria-causing Mosquitoes | The climate channel – Article from the climate channel
August 20th is marked as World Mosquito Day each year to help raise awareness about the mosquito-borne disease and how to prevent it. The day commemorates the discovery of mosquitoes that transmit malaria by the British doctor Sir Ronald Ross in 1897.
India and Malaria
Among the many mosquito-borne vector-borne diseases, malaria poses the greatest health burden to India. As a tropical country, Indian conditions for mosquitoes to reproduce are quite favorable, making it one of the eleven most malaria-affected countries in the world. In addition, around 95% of the Indian population live in the malaria endemic areas.
A mosquito net seller on Taluk Office Street near Guindy in Chennai.
(C Suresh Kumar / BCCL, Chennai)
In recent years, India has made remarkable strides in reducing the burden of malaria. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2019, India has seen a significant decrease in malaria cases from 2017 by 26 lakh compared to 2017 – a remarkable decrease of 28%.
In the Southeast Asia region, India accounts for 58% of the reported case load. According to the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP), India reported 62,129 cases of malaria in 2020 as of June. In 2019, the country reported 3.3 lakh confirmed cases.
A drone identified inaccessible breeding sites for dengue malaria mosquitoes in Dhobi Ghat on Sunday, June 14, 2020.
(Sanjay Hadkar / TOI, BCCL / Mumbai)
The Indian government has set itself the goal of eradicating malaria by 2030, and both government agencies and non-governmental organizations have come together to achieve this ambitious goal. The non-profit organization Malaria No More India (MNM) also started a new national campaign “Bite ko mat lo lite” this year. The campaign was launched in 21 states in India and aims to educate people and take the necessary precautions against the mosquito bites.
Transmission of mosquito-borne diseases
Mosquitoes are the most common vectors that transmit various diseases such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, dengue fever, and malaria. Nearly 3,500 species of mosquito have been identified worldwide, while there are over 400 species in India alone, almost all of which transmit diseases.
Malaria is typically caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. These vectors transmit the disease primarily through biting a person. Mosquitoes mainly thrive in areas of stagnant water, including rainwater puddles, open tanks, and old tires.
Khalsa volunteers from Jammu help seize mosquitoes in Rajendra Nagar, Patna
(KM Sharma / BCCL, Patna)
Malaria cases increase sharply during the monsoon season, as mosquitoes have enough sources to multiply and increase their population in a very short time.
Normally, an attack of malaria goes through three phases in the human body – the cold phase, the hot phase and the sweating phase. The most common symptoms of the disease are headache, vomiting and nausea, chills, sweats, and body aches. In most cases, the disease is easy to treat and therefore needs to be tested immediately after symptoms appear.
Lesser Known Facts About Mosquitos
– Female mosquitoes produce 100-300 eggs at the same time on a still water surface and these hatch within 48 hours. The larvae grow into adult mosquitoes within two weeks. A female mosquito can produce eggs up to ten times in as little as two months.
-The world malaria is a combination of two Italian words – Mal and Aria – this means bad air. While the world mosquito comes from Spanish, which means “little fly”.
– Only female Anopheles mosquitoes can cause malaria as male mosquitoes do not bite animals. Anopheles mosquitoes require human blood to allow their eggs to mature.
-Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) is the deadliest parasite among the five known species of Plasmodium – a type of protozoa – that infect humans and cause malaria. Pf has the ability to completely penetrate and destroy the red blood cells in the liver. P. vivax is another that poses a very high threat.
– The first known antimalarial remedy dates from the early 17th century. It was extracted from the bark of the Chinese tree and is known as quinine.
-Mosquitoes are believed to be responsible for the deaths of 5 to 50 percent of approximately 108 billion people who have ever lived on earth. Even today, these tiny insects claim more than 7,000,000 deaths each year.
Vector-borne diseases account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases. They can be caused by either parasites, bacteria, or viruses and can be spread through vectors such as mosquitoes and fleas.
– As early as 1852, the disease caused an epidemic in West Bengal, according to the Indian Journal of Medical Research (IJMR). According to the Malaria Institute of India, about 100 million people suffered from malaria in India in 1935 and about a million deaths occurred annually in endemic areas.
– Experts have found that mosquitoes are said to have killed more people in the course of human history than all wars combined.
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